1.  c)  Rugby uses an oblong ball that looks like a football from around about 1890.

2.  d)  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychological condition.

3.  a)  OCD is a neurobiological condition which typically responds very well to CBT.  This is the widely recommended first intervention for children and adolescents who have OCD.  It also works well for many adults.  Some patients of all ages are too distressed, anxious, and severely impaired to start treatment with CBT alone.  These patients usually need medication treatment either first or concurrently with CBT.  Modern antidepressants such as Prozac, Zoloft, Luvox, Paxil, Celexa, and Lexapro are typically employed for this purpose.  A "serotoninergic" tryciclic known as Anafrani9l is also very effective for OCD patients.

4.  e)  All of the above.  ADHD, OCD, BPD, Aperger's Disorder, and Tourette's Syndrome are all neurobiological in origin.

5.  b)  Cylert (pemoline) is an old psuedo-stimulant medication which quickly proved to induce hepatic (liver) failure, both soon after being started and in other cases after many months or even years of use.  It is no longer used in the United States.  Remarkably, this toxic drug is approved for use in some foreign countries!

6.  d)  Abilify is a "major tranquilizer," also known as a "neuroleptic."  It is often featured in TV ads suggesting depressed patients not responding adequately to treatment with standard antidepressants "should ask their doctor about adding Abilify to their treatment regimen."  This is often very helpful.  Other neuroleptics such as Zyprexa, Geodon, Risperdal, and Seroquel are also helpful.

7.  a)  Stimulants are the first choice medications for patients of all ages who have ADHD.  Very young (ages 3-6 y/o) children are often tried with guanfacine (Tenex, Intuniv) or clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay) first when their symptoms are so severe behavioral treatment alone is insufficient.

The non-stimulant Strattera is FDA-approved for treatment of ADHD; it is usually a second or third choice.  Some individuals respond reasonably well to the unusual antidepressant medication Wellbutrin.

8.  a)  Straterra is FDA-approved for treatment of ADHD but is not a stimulant.

9.  True.  Almost all surveys of the incidence of ADHD worldwide reveal this condition affects 7-9% of boys.  Girls are clearly less frequently affected by ADHD than boys, with most surveys suggesting incidence of 5-7%.  Girls often have far more subtle symptoms than boys, so studies conducted in the '80's and '90's tended to report only about a 3-5% incidence of ADHD in girls.

10.  False.  OCD affects about 2.5% of adults.

11.  b)  Ineffective parenting can gravely aggravate childrens symptoms of ADHD, but does not cause this condition.

12.  False.  This theory dates back to the 1970's and by now has been disproven many times over.  Stimulants can generate the side effect of tics in children who have no personal or familial history of Tourette's Syndrome, and sometimes even more problematic tics in children who are known to have Tourette's Syndrome.  However, about 22% of children who have never been treated with ANY medication develop some (almost always very mild) tics during childhood, the same rate of development of tics in children treated with stimulants.  This is no longer a serious concern except for a very small percentage of stimulant-treated children.

13.  False.  The incidence of ADHD has been the same for generations.  ADHD is simply being identified more frequently by parents and teachers now, and more frequently being diagnosed and treated by physicians.

14.  False.  There is never any true "dependency."  Patients being treated for ADHD often stop taking their medications for weeks, months, or years.  (I will discuss this issue elsewhere on this website).  No patients ever "crave" stimulant medications; they usually forget to take them.  there is no sense of a "high" feeling from taking standard doses of stimulants.

15.  False.  About 50-60% of children who have Tourette's Syndrome also have ADHD, and at least 30-40% develop OCD as they enter teen years.